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Test Code APCRV Activated Protein C Resistance V (APCRV), Plasma

Reporting Name

Activated Protein Resistance V, P

Useful For

Evaluation of patients with incident or recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE)

 

Evaluation of individuals with a family history of VTE

Performing Laboratory

Mayo Medical Laboratories in Rochester

Specimen Type

Plasma Na Cit


Advisory Information


Although this assay can be performed in the absence of other coagulation tests and clinical information, it is most reliably performed as part of a consultative coagulation test panel with interpretive reporting (including appropriate testing of the same specimen to evaluate for the presence or absence of coagulation abnormalities or conditions that may affect interpretation of the APC resistance assay). This test is included among a panel of tests designated THRMP / Thrombophilia Profile.



Necessary Information


If priority specimen, mark request form, give reason, and request a call-back.



Specimen Required


See Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.

 

Specimen Type: Platelet-poor plasma

Collection Container/Tube: Light-blue top (citrate)

Submission Container/Tube: Polypropylene vial

Specimen Volume: 1 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Spin down, remove plasma

2. Spin plasma again; remove plasma aliquot without disturbing bottom 0.5 mL

3. Freeze specimen aliquot immediately at or below -40° C, if possible but no longer than 4 hours after collection

Additional Information:

1. Double-centrifuged specimen is critical for accurate results as platelet contamination may cause spurious results.

2. If priority specimen, mark request form, give reason, and request a call-back.

3. Each coagulation assay requested should have its own vial.


Specimen Minimum Volume

0.5 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time
Plasma Na Cit Frozen 14 days

Special Instructions

Reference Values

APCRV RATIO

≥2.3

Pediatric reference range has neither been established nor is available in scientific literature. The adult reference range likely would be applicable to children older than 6 months.

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Monday through Friday

Test Classification

This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information

85307

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
APCRV Activated Protein Resistance V, P 13590-5

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
APCR APCRV Ratio 13590-5
INT55 Interpretation 48591-2

Clinical Information

Protein C, a part of the natural anticoagulant system, is a vitamin K-dependent protein zymogen (molecular weight=62,000 da) that is synthesized in the liver and circulates at a plasma concentration of approximately 5 mcg/mL. Protein C is activated to activated protein C (APC) via proteolytic cleavage by thrombin bound to thrombomodulin, an endothelial cell surface membrane protein. APC downregulates the procoagulant system by proteolytically inactivating procoagulant factors Va and VIIIa. Protein S, another vitamin K-dependent coagulation protein, catalyzes APC inactivation of factors Va and VIIIa. APC interacts with and proteolyses factors V/Va and VIII/VIIIa at specific APC binding and cleavage sites, respectively. Resistance to activated protein C (APC resistance) is a term used to describe abnormal resistance of human plasma to the anticoagulant effects of human APC. APC resistance is characterized by a reduced anticoagulant response of patient plasma after adding a standard amount of APC. For this assay, the activated partial thromboplastin time clotting test fails to prolong significantly after the addition of APC.

 

The vast majority of individuals with familial APC resistance have a specific point mutation in the procoagulant factor V gene (1691G-A, factor V Leiden) encoding for a glutamine (Q) substitution for arginine (R)-506 in the heavy chain of factor V (factor V R506Q). This amino acid change alters an APC cleavage site on factor V such that factor V/Va is partially resistant to inactivation by APC. The carrier frequency for the factor V Leiden mutation varies depending on the population. Approximately 5% of asymptomatic white Americans of non-Hispanic ancestry are heterozygous carriers, while the carrier frequency among African Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans is less than 1%, and the carrier frequency for Hispanics is intermediate (2.5%). The carrier frequency can be especially high (up to 14%) among whites of Northern European or Scandinavian ancestry. Homozygosity for factor V Leiden is much less common, but may confer a substantially increased risk for thrombosis. The degree of abnormality of the APC-resistance assay correlates with heterozygosity or homozygosity for the factor V Leiden mutation; homozygous carriers have a very low APC-resistance ratio (eg, 1.1-1.4), while the ratio for heterozygous carriers is usually 1.5 to 1.8.

Interpretation

An activated protein C (APC) resistance ratio of less than 2.3 suggests abnormal resistance to APC of hereditary origin.

 

If the APC resistance test is abnormal, DNA-based testing for the factor V Leiden mutation (F5DNA / Factor V Leiden [R506Q] Mutation, Blood) may be helpful in confirming or excluding hereditary APC-resistance.

Clinical Reference

1. Nichols WL, Heit JA: Activated protein C resistance and thrombosis. Mayo Clin Proc 1996;71:897-898

2. Dahlback B: Resistance to activated protein C as risk factor for thrombosis: molecular mechanisms, laboratory investigation, and clinical management. Semin Hematol 1997;34(3):217-234

3. Rodeghiero F, Tosetto A: Activated protein C resistance and Factor V Leiden mutation are independent risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:643-650

4. Grody WW, Griffin JH, Taylor AK, et al: American College of Medical Genetics consensus statement on factor V Leiden mutation testing. Genet Med 2001;3:139-148

5. Press RD, Bauer KA, Kujovich JL, Heit JA: Clinical utility of factor V Leiden (R506Q) testing for the diagnosis and management of thromboembolic disorders. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2002;126:1304-1318

Analytic Time

1 day

Reject Due To

Hemolysis

Mild OK; Gross reject

Lipemia

Mild OK; Gross reject

Icterus

Mild OK; Gross reject

Other

NA

Method Name

Clot-Based Assay

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Coagulation Test Request Form (T753) with the specimen (http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/it-mmfiles/coagulation-test-request-form.pdf)