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Test Code PARVS Parvovirus B19 Antibodies, IgG and IgM, Serum


Advisory Information


Serologic evaluation for antibodies to parvovirus B19 is useful in patients with at least 5 to 7 days of symptoms or asymptomatic individuals with recent exposure to parvovirus B19; see PARVP / Parvovirus B19, Molecular Detection, PCR, Plasma or PARVO / Parvovirus B19, Molecular Detection, PCR.



Specimen Required


Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL


Secondary ID

48395

Useful For

Serologic detection of recent or past parvovirus B19 infection

Profile Information

Test ID Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
PARVG Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgG, S No Yes
PARVM Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgM, S No Yes
PARVN Parvovirus B19 Ab Interpretation No Yes

Method Name

Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)

Reporting Name

Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgG and IgM, S

Specimen Type

Serum

Specimen Minimum Volume

0.5 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
  Frozen  14 days

Reject Due To

Hemolysis

Mild OK; Gross reject

Lipemia

Mild OK; Gross reject

Icterus

Mild OK; Gross reject

Other

NA

Clinical Information

Parvovirus B19 preferentially replicates in erythroid progenitor cells.(1) Infection with parvovirus B19 occurs early in life and the virus is transmitted by respiratory secretion and occasionally by blood products. Antibody prevalence ranges from 2% to 15% in early adults.(1)

 

Parvovirus B19 may result in an asymptomatic infection or produce a wide spectrum of disease ranging from erythema infections (slapped cheek syndrome or fifth disease) in children to arthropathy, severe anemia, and systemic manifestations involving the central nervous system, heart, and liver depending on the immune competence of the host.(2,3) Infection with parvovirus B19 in pregnant women may cause hydrops fetalis, congenital anemia, abortion, or stillbirth of the fetus.(4) Parvovirus B19 is also the causative agent of persistent anemia usually, but not exclusively, in immunocompromised patients, transplant patients, and infants.

 

Most acute infections with parvovirus B19 are diagnosed in the laboratory by serologically detecting IgG and IgM class antibodies with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing.

Reference Values

IgG: Negative

IgM: Negative

Interpretation

Parvovirus B19 IgM

Parvovirus B19 IgG

Interpretation

Negative

Negative

Implies no past infection or exposure to parvovirus B19. Patient may be susceptible to parvovirus B19 infection

Negative

Positive

Implies past exposure/infection and minimal risk of repeat parvovirus B19 infection

Equivocal

Positive or negative

May indicate current or recent parvovirus B19 infection. Recommendation to test a new convalescent specimen collected in 1 to 2 weeks

Positive

Positive

Suggests current or recent parvovirus B19 infection

Positive

Negative or equivocal

Suggests current or recent parvovirus B19 infection. Recommendation to test a new convalescent specimen collected in 1 to 2 weeks.

 

The presence of IgM class antibodies suggests recent infection. The presence of IgG antibodies only is indicative of past exposure.

 

Both IgG and IgM may be present at or soon after onset of illness and reach peak titers within 30 days. Because IgG antibody may persist for years, diagnosis of acute infection is made by the detection of IgM antibodies.

 

The prevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies increases with age. The age-specific prevalence of antibodies to parvovirus is 2% to 9% of children under 5 years, 15% to 35% in children 5 to 18 years of age, and 30% to 60% in adults (19 years or older).

Clinical Reference

1. Brown KE, Young NS: Parvovirus B19 in human disease. Ann Rev Med 1997;48:59-67

2. Markenson GR, Yancey MK: Parvovirus B19 infections in pregnancy. Semin Perinatol 1998;22(4):309-317

3. Summers J, Jones SE, Anderson MJ: Characterization of the genome of the agent of erythrocyte aplasia permits its classification as a human parvovirus. J Gen Virol 1983;64;(Pt 11):2527-2532

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Monday through Friday; 11 a.m.

Analytic Time

Same day/1 day

Performing Laboratory

Mayo Medical Laboratories in Rochester

Test Classification

This test has been modified from the manufacturer's instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

86747 x 2

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
PARVS Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgG and IgM, S 34950-6

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
PARVG Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgG, S 29660-8
PARVM Parvovirus B19 Ab, IgM, S 40658-7
PARVN Parvovirus B19 Ab Interpretation 58737-8